The 36th anniversary of the Anfal Campaign against the Kurdish people

The 36th anniversary of the Anfal Campaign against the Kurdish people

Apr 14 2024

ARK News… The 36th anniversary of the Anfal Campaign against the Kurdish people in Kurdistan Region passes today, Sunday, April 14, 2024

The campaign, which began on February 9, 1988, resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of Kurds, including women and children, and the complete destruction of entire villages.

During the campaign's phases, the Iraqi army arrested thousands of Kurdish civilians and transported them to camps in southern Iraq before executing them in mass graves, while others were buried alive in the desert.

The main accused in the massacres against the Kurds was former Defense Minister Ali Hassan al-Majid, also known as "Chemical Ali," who was executed by the Iraqi judiciary in 2010 after being convicted of these crimes and others.

Official statistics indicate that the Anfal campaigns claimed the lives of 180,000 civilians, using heavy weapons, toxic gases, and chemical bombardment during these operations.

Since the fall of the former regime in 2003, Iraqi authorities have discovered dozens of mass graves of Kurds in various areas, especially in remote desert regions of southern Iraq.

The Anfal campaigns were carried out in eight stages, resulting in the destruction of 4,500 villages, about 100 towns, and the burning of dozens of farms, mosques, and churches.

The Kurdistan Regional Government has designated April 14th of each year as a day to commemorate the victims of the Anfal operations.

Stages of the Anfal Campaign:

First Stage: Started on February 9th and lasted until February 23rd, 1988, targeting areas in Sar Gulo, Bar Gul, and the town of Sordashi in the Dukan district of Sulaymaniyah Governorate.

Second Stage: Started on February 22nd and lasted until April 1st, 1988, targeting areas in Gara Dagh.

Third Stage: Started on April 7th and lasted until April 20th, 1988, in Kirkuk Governorate and towns including Khurmatu, Kalar, Kifri, Dibis, Garmiyan, and several other areas. This stage was characterized by the large size of the areas covered and the number of victims, leading the Kurdistan Regional Government to designate April 14th as the annual anniversary of the Anfal crimes.

Fourth Stage: Started on May 3rd and lasted until May 8th, 1988, targeting the Little Zab River area, as well as areas such as Aghjalar, Kobtaka, Askar, and parts of Sheik Bizini Kalkan, and Dukan.

Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Stages: Started on May 15th and lasted until August 26th, 1988, targeting various areas including Balisan, Shaqlawa, Heran, Nazenin, Samaqoli, Doli Alan, Rawanduz, Choman, Qandil Mountains, Raniya, Chwarqurna, Hezop, Bawaji Mountains, and parts of villages Koye, Debaga, and Pirde.

Eighth Stage: Started on August 25th and lasted until September 6th, 1988, targeting areas in Amidiye, Duhok, Zakho, Sheikhan, Akre, and Barzan.